POLDOX

educatief documentaire platform

DOXTUBE

Terug naar ooit

Terug naar Ooit

Bij Z

Bij Z

DIERenMENS

Dierenopvangcentrum Amsterdam

DOXTALK

Selma Leydesdorff

“Mondelinge overlevering is een belangrijke historische bron. De belevenissen van …

Huisvrouwtje In De Dop

Destijds uitgezonden in het radio documentaire programma Damokles (KRO/NCRV, 1998). …

P> LUX masterclass Cherry Duyns

Cherry Duyns praat over samenwerken, het filmscript en het draaien. …

DOXTHEEK

The Battle of San Pietro, 1944

John Huston
INTRODUCTION BY GENERAL MARK CLARK. BATTLE OF SAN PIETRO …

Purple Hearts, 2004

Roel van Broekhoven, VPRO, 2004

Een documentaire over drie Amerikaanse soldaten …

Een schone dag geweest,1993

Jos de Putter, VPRO,1993

Jos de Putter maakte een weemoedig …

» doxtalk LUX

Lumiere Brothers, 1895

Early film (pre-1900) was dominated by the novelty of showing an event. They were single-shot moments captured on film: a train entering a station, a boat docking, or factory workers leaving work. These short films were called “actuality” films; the term “documentary” was not coined until 1926. Very little storytelling took place before the twentieth century. Many of the first films, such as those made by Auguste and Louis Lumière, were a minute or less in length, due to technological limitations. Films showing many people (e.g., leaving a factory) were often made for commercial reasons: the people being filmed were eager to see, for payment, the film showing them.

The Lumière brothers were born in Besançon, France, in 1862 and 1864, and moved to Lyon in 1870, where both attended La Martiniere, the largest technical school in Lyon. Their father, Claude-Antoine Lumière (1840–1911), ran a photographic firm and both brothers worked for him: Louis as a physicist and Auguste as a manager. Louis had made some improvements to the still-photograph process, the most notable being the dry-plate process, which was a major step towards moving images.

It was not until their father retired in 1892 that the brothers began to create moving pictures. They patented a number of significant processes leading up to their film camera – most notably film perforations as a means of advancing the film through the camera and projector. The cinématographe itself was patented on 13 February 1895 and the first footage ever to be recorded using it was recorded on March 19, 1895. This first film shows workers leaving the Lumière factory.

The Lumières held their first private screening of projected motion pictures in 1895. Their first public screening of films at which admission was charged was held on December 28, 1895, at Salon Indien du Grand Café in Paris. This history-making presentation featured ten short films, including their first film, Sortie des Usines Lumière à Lyon (Workers Leaving the Lumière Factory). Each film is 17 meters long, which, when hand cranked through a projector, runs approximately 50 seconds.

The public debut at the Grand Café came a few months later and consisted of the following ten short films (in order of presentation):

  1. 1. La Sortie de l’Usine Lumière à Lyon (literally, “the exit from the Lumière factory in Lyon”, or, under its more common English title, Workers Leaving the Lumiere Factory), 46 seconds
  2. 2. La Voltige (“Horse Trick Riders”), 46 seconds
  3. 3. La Pêche aux poissons rouges (“fishing for goldfish”), 42 seconds
  4. 4. Le Débarquement du Congrès de Photographie à Lyon (“the disembarkment of the Congress of Photographers in Lyon”), 48 seconds
  5. 5. Les Forgerons (“Blacksmiths”), 49 seconds
  6. 6. Le Jardinier (l’Arroseur Arrosé) (“The Gardener,” or “The Sprinkler Sprinkled”), 49 seconds
  7. 7. Repas de bébé (“Baby’s Breakfast” (lit. “baby’s meal”)), 41 seconds
  8. 8. Le Saut à la couverture (“Jumping Onto the Blanket”), 41 seconds
  9. 9. La Place des Cordeliers à Lyon (“Cordeliers Square in Lyon”–a street scene), 44 seconds
  10. 10. La Mer (Baignade en mer) (“the sea [bathing in the sea]”), 38 seconds